CIENCIACLIMAINTERNACIONAL

Indicadores climáticos: científicos monitorean 18 marcadores globales del cambio ambiental.

Varios factores ambientales clave guían un esfuerzo continuo para comprender los cambios globales en el clima.

Imagen: NASA

Se realiza un seguimiento como parte de una evaluación sostenida del estado del clima que respalda el estudio científico, muestra riesgos y vulnerabilidades y establece prioridades futuras.

Diecisiete indicadores del cambio global, también llamados «indicadores climáticos», muestran tendencias a lo largo del tiempo en aspectos clave de la atmósfera, los océanos y las condiciones ambientales de la Tierra.

Imagen: EKOEnergy

Ellos sustentan el trabajo de una colaboración de más de una docena de departamentos y agencias federales que contribuyen al conocimiento científico público a través del Programa de Investigación de Cambio Global de los Estados Unidos (USGCRP).

La NOAA y muchas de sus divisiones y afiliadas, incluida la NCEI, la Oficina del Programa Climático (CPO) y el Instituto Cooperativo de Estudios del Sistema Terrestre por Satélite (CISESS), contribuyen al trabajo del USGCRP, que actualiza periódicamente el estado de los diecisiete indicadores climáticos.

Imagen: Especial/Web

Los indicadores climáticos se entrelazan en la Evaluación Nacional del Clima:

1.- Desastres de miles de millones de dólares: el número anual y el tipo de desastres meteorológicos y climáticos en los Estados Unidos que superan los mil millones de dólares en pérdidas directas.

Imagen: ECURed

2.- Temporada sin heladas: la cantidad de días sin heladas en un año, una indicación de la duración de la temporada de crecimiento.

Imagen: GreenPeace

4.- Calor extremo: tendencias en eventos de calor extremo de varios días en 50 ciudades importantes de EE. UU.

Foto: AP

5.- Días de grado de calefacción y refrigeración: la cantidad de grados en los que la temperatura diaria promedio es más baja o más alta, respectivamente, de 55°C. Los grados-día se utilizan como proxy de la demanda de energía para la calefacción o refrigeración de edificios.

6.- Precipitación intensa: medidas de la cantidad relativa de lluvia anual de eventos de precipitación grandes de un solo día y su cambio a lo largo del tiempo.

Foto: PMA

7.- Distribución de especies marinas: cambios en la ubicación de peces, mariscos y otras especies marinas a lo largo de la costa debido al calentamiento de las temperaturas del océano.

8.- Inicio de la primavera: cambios en la fecha cada año en que se ha acumulado suficiente calor para iniciar la formación de hojas y la floración en plantas sensibles a la temperatura.

Foto: AP

9.- Almacenamiento de carbono terrestre: cambios anuales en el carbono almacenado en materia orgánica viva y muerta por encima y por debajo del suelo.

10.- Temperaturas de la superficie de EE. UU.: cambios anuales observados en la temperatura en los Estados Unidos contiguos.

Imagen: Especial/Web

11.- Índice anual de gases de efecto invernadero: una medida de la capacidad de la atmósfera terrestre para atrapar el calor como resultado de la presencia de gases de efecto invernadero de larga duración.

12.- Balance de masa del glaciar ártico: El cambio acumulativo en el balance de masa (ganancia/pérdida neta de nieve y hielo) de ocho glaciares al norte del Círculo Polar Ártico desde 1945.

13.- Extensión del hielo marino del Ártico: una medida del área del Océano Ártico donde hay al menos algo de hielo marino.

14.- Dióxido de carbono atmosférico: Concentración promedio mensual global de CO2 en la atmósfera medida en 40 sitios alrededor del mundo.

Imagen: NASA

15.- Temperaturas globales de la superficie: el récord anual a largo plazo de temperaturas globales.

16.- Concentraciones de clorofila en el océano: una medida anual de la concentración de clorofila que indica la cantidad de fitoplancton en el océano.

17.- Aumento del nivel del mar: cambios en los niveles medios anuales del mar a nivel mundial debido a la expansión térmica y el derretimiento de las capas de hielo y los glaciares.

Imagen: NASA

18.- Temperaturas de la superficie del mar: muestra las temperaturas medias anuales en los 10 metros superiores del océano.

Con información de Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura.

Somos Extremo Mundial.

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