ANIMALESHISTORIAS

Animales mutantes en Chernóbil 35 años después del desastre.

Hace más de tres décadas el accidente nuclear más grave de la historia dejó una zona completamente abandonada. Pero la vida sigue ahí aunque sea con animales mutantes.

Animales mutantes en Chernóbil 35 años después del desastre.

Durante más de tres décadas, Chernóbil ha sido un ejemplo de los peligros potenciales de la energía nuclear.

El peor accidente nuclear del mundo tuvo un efecto devastador en el área circundante en lo que ahora son las naciones de Ucrania y Bielorrusia. Pero una generación después, la naturaleza y las personas se han adaptado de maneras sorprendentes.

Foto: REUTERS.

Los eventos del 25 al 26 de abril de 1986 en la entonces Unión Soviética se dieron por una prueba de seguridad que salió mal. Esto provocó una explosión que hizo estallar parte del reactor número 4 y un incendio que se mantuvo durante más de una semana.

El desastre liberó una nube de radiación a la atmósfera que se extendió primero localmente y después por gran parte de Europa. Se estima que la cantidad de material radiactivo fue 400 veces mayor que la bomba atómica lanzada sobre Hiroshima.

El personal de emergencias mostraron una enorme valentía inmediatamente después del accidente. Treinta y un personas murieron como resultado inmediato de la explosión o enfermedades por radiación. Cientos de miles de personas trabajaron para descontaminar el área durante los siguientes meses y años. El número total de fallecidos es difícil de calcular, pero la Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que aún 4000 personas fallecerán tarde o temprano por cáncer y envenenamiento por radiación.

Foto: REUTERS.

Desde entonces se estableció una zona de exclusión de 30 kilómetros, lo que obligó a la evacuación de cientos de miles de personas. Muchas de las cuales nunca pudieron regresar. Decenas de pueblos y aldeas quedaron como ciudades fantasmas.

El efecto sobre el medio ambiente local fue catastrófico. Un bosque cercano se  le llamó el Bosque Rojo, por las agujas de color óxido que caían de los pinos muertos. Sigue siendo uno de los lugares más radiactivos de la tierra. Los animales y las plantas sufrieron mutaciones, retraso en el crecimiento y anomalías de comportamiento.

Pero Chernóbil está lejos de no contener vida.

Foto: Los Primeros TV.

El reactor dañado se cubrió inicialmente con un sarcófago de concreto gigante, para evitar que escapara más material radiactivo. En 2016 se instaló un nuevo escudo de contención. Dentro de él, los trabajadores todavía están ocupados manteniendo el sitio seguro. Controlan la radiación y, finalmente, planean desmantelar el sarcófago de concreto y eliminar el combustible nuclear.

Incluso turistas se atreven a visitar la zona. Aunque se les mantiene fuera de los sitios más radiactivos. Cada año, decenas de miles lo visitan, a menudo para ver las inquietantes ruinas de pueblos abandonados.

Frente al antiguo emplazamiento nuclear, una nueva planta de energía ha comenzado a generar energía limpia. Los paneles solares producen suficiente electricidad para alimentar 2,000 apartamentos. Es un proyecto que tiene tanto que ver con el simbolismo como con la economía. Para la gente de la zona, es un signo de recuperación y nuevo crecimiento.

Animales mutantes.

Animales mutantes en Chernóbil 35 años después del desastre.
Foto: Germán Orizaola.

Sin embargo, esa recuperación es más evidente en la naturaleza. Aunque los animales y las plantas dentro de la zona de exclusión todavía muestran algunos efectos de la radiación, la vida está encontrando una forma de adaptarse. Por ejemplo, las ranas que viven dentro de la zona de exclusión son más oscuras, lo que puede brindarles una protección adicional contra la radiación.

De hecho, partes de la zona de exclusión se han convertido en un refugio para la biodiversidad. Los investigadores han visto osos pardos, linces, bisontes europeos, jabalíes y caballos de Przewalski en números cada vez mayores. Un efecto secundario inesperado de la evacuación de personas del área ha sido la creación de un santuario de vida silvestre, donde las especies pueden vivir intactas por la actividad humana.

Animales mutantes en Chernóbil 35 años después del desastre.
Foto: Proyecto TREE.

En cuanto a los insectos, algunos parecen vivir menos o mostrarse más vulnerables ante los parásitos, sobre todo en zonas de alta radiación. Las aves también parecen tener algunos efectos negativos, como daños en su sistema inmune, aumento de albinismo y alteraciones genéticas. Aunque esto no impide que las poblaciones continúen con su reproducción.

Las vacas de Chernóbil se han organizado en manadas y presentan un comportamiento muy diferente al que suelen tener los animales domésticos o de cría.

Animales mutantes en Chernóbil 35 años después del desastre.
Foto: Reserva de Radiación y Biosfera Ecológica de Chernóbil.

Las arañas en la zona de exclusión ahora realizan telarañas desordenadas, irregulares, con grandes agujeros y sin un patrón claro. Muy diferentes de las telarañas simétricas que suelen hacer los arácnidos. De alguna manera el comportamiento de estas arañas mutó.

Animales mutantes en Chernóbil 35 años después del desastre.

Como resultado, algunos científicos han llegado a dos conclusiones. Primero, los animales y las plantas pueden ser más resistentes a la radiación de lo que habíamos pensado originalmente.

Y en segundo lugar, los efectos del peor desastre nuclear del mundo pueden ser menos dañinos para el mundo natural que la presencia continua de personas. Así que podemos ver esto como una lección de esperanza o una advertencia sobre nuestro impacto diario en el planeta.

Animales mutantes en Chernóbil 35 años después del desastre.

Con información de World Economic Forum / Nat Geo.

Somos Extremo Mundial.

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